HIV/AIDS Skepticism

Pointing to evidence that HIV is not the necessary and sufficient cause of AIDS

Posts Tagged ‘Christian Fiala’

Answering Cranks — THANK YOU, PERTH!

Posted by Henry Bauer on 2009/12/04

I think it was Bertrand Russell, or perhaps it was Bernard Shaw, who wrote a classic piece about the frustrations of trying to engage in substantive discussion with a crank. The essay has been cited quite often by accomplished science writers like Jeremy Bernstein. The frustration is that it takes far longer to deconstruct the crank’s claims that it takes the crank to make them. The crank pours out undocumented assertions that are wrong not only in detail but that are wrong-headed in general principle, and each assertion then requires general background discourse to establish the correct principles as well as detail-specific answers; and all needs careful documentation and attention to nuance if the contretemps is to be not just a shouting match of opposing assertions.

Since HIV/AIDS theory is pseudoscience (Science Studies 102: Burden of proof, HIV/AIDS “science”, pseudo-science, 22 July 2008;  HIV/AIDS and parapsychology: science or pseudo-science?, 30 December 2008; Trying to think about the Unthinkable, 2 January 2009; Mainstream pseudo-science good, alternative pseudo-science bad, 25 February 2009; Circumcision pseudo-science, 2 September 2009), its proponents are cranks (crackpots, pseudoscientists), and frustration is a common experience for AIDS Rethinkers. The most vociferous of the HIV/AIDS vigilantes, say Jeanne Bergman or Seth Kalichman, show that they know nothing of history of science or philosophy of science or sociology of science, and have not even done any science themselves (unless one grants their idiosyncratic claim that economics or law or psychology are sciences). So their detailed statements are embedded in discourse that is ignorant of the very nature of science, and that needs correction before one even begins to address their detailed claims.

The HIV/AIDS groupies and vigilantes have been increasingly on the defensive after Medical Hypotheses accepted, and posted as in press on the journal’s website in July, a couple of articles striking at the very heart of HIV/AIDS blunders: the fact that the sovereign nation of Italy maintains its health without recognizing HIV as a dangerous infection or AIDS as an illness caused by it (Ruggiero et al.) and that an article in JAIDS found it necessary to multiply by a factor of 25 the deaths from AIDS in South Africa (Duesberg et al.) in order to maintain the fictions that AIDS is devastating Africa and that antiretroviral drugs save lives when delivered indiscriminately to “HIV-positive” individuals.

At the same time, The House of Numbers (documentary film by Brent Leung) as making the rounds of film festivals, gathering honors and plaudits as it showed through direct on-camera interviews the vacuity of HIV/AIDS theories and the disagreements among HIV/AIDS gurus over the most elementary aspects of the whole business.

The first response was a joint letter by some of the interviewed gurus disclaiming what they were seen to have said: just as convincing as Nancy Padian’s repeated assertions over the years that her observation of zero transmission of HIV was not evidence of no transmission. In other words, the first responses was the claim that a goodly number of the leading HIV/AIDS experts are unable to say what they mean.

Luc Montagnier’s remarks were, it was alleged, (1) taken out of context; (2) suffered from Montagnier’s lack of command of English; (3) reflected trapping through leading questions from the interviewer (though Montagnier himself did not sign the letter). The claim of taken out of context would seem to have dissolved when Leung posted an unedited clip of the relevant portion of the interview in honor of World AIDS Day.

The chief attempt to discredit the film appears to be a website devoted entirely to that task. When I learned of it and looked at it, I left again almost immediately because my intellectual stomach turned in revolt at seeing the assertions has Bergman posted in typically crank fashion, undocumented, wrong in detail and wrongheaded in its ignorance of the very nature of science in particular and disciplined logical argument in general.

But no matter how time-consuming and unrewarding it may be to develop properly supported answers to such crankish stuff, it serves as a valuable resource to which other Rethinkers can refer as they try to spread the truth, one acquaintance or friend or student at a time. So we should be exceedingly grateful to the Perth Group who have posted impeccably argued and documented material that demolishes utterly the Bergmanian flim-flam.
The first installment of the deconstruction exposes the dirty little secret that HIV/AIDS theorists nowadays regard immune activation and not immune-cell depletion as what goes wrong in “AIDS”, which among other things explains why antiretroviral treatment, if or when it “reconstitutes” the immune system also brings on AIDS diseases (the phenomenon swept under the carpet by being named, Immune Restoration Syndrome). The Perthers also make mincemeat of Bergman’s attempt to discount the role played by animal models in HIV/AIDS publications (I was about to write “research”).
The second installment of the deconstruction exposes Bergman’s incompetence to write about scientific matters. There is a useful list of the Perth Group’s seminal articles questioning HIV/AIDS theory, some e-mails illustrating J P Moore’s unwillingness to engage in substantive scientific discourse, and a reminder that Montagnier has been talking about oxidative stress for quite some time but without acknowledging the much earlier proposal by the Perth Group of which he had been fully aware. The way in which HIV/AIDS virologists have taken in vain the term “isolation” is described in convincing detail, together with the filmed evidence that David Baltimore, Robin Weiss, and other experts do not appear to be aware that “HIV” has never in fact been isolated in the proper meaning of the word. The claimed evidence for sexual transmission of HIV is demonstrated to be non-existent.
Perhaps the worst of Bergman’s assertions is that of 99.9% accuracy for a two-test protocol of ELISA plus Western Blot. Since she cites no source, one cannot contradict the source; but Perth does the job nicely even without that. Lacking a gold standard, “accuracy” or specificity cannot be known; and there is no gold standard for “HIV” tests (Weiss &Cowan, cited in “HIV” tests are self-fulfilling prophecies, 10 May 2009).

Thank you, Eleni Papadopulos-Eleopulos, Valendar F. Turner, John M Papadimitriou, David Causer. Well done! Yet another of your invaluable contributions to the Rethinking literature.

Posted in experts, HIV does not cause AIDS, HIV skepticism | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 12 Comments »

Public Health Service of Italy accepts work of Ruggiero et al.

Posted by Henry Bauer on 2009/09/28

On 12 July 2009, this blog published a press release reporting the acceptance (on 3 June) by the journal Medical Hypotheses of an article by Professor Ruggiero and co-workers at the University of Florence pointing out that official policies of the Italian Ministry of Health implied a lack of necessary connection between HIV and AIDS [“Official Italian data: no causal connection between HIV and AIDS”, 12 July 2009].

Consternation ensued among HIV/AIDS vigilantes that so well established, indeed distinguished a research group had produced such a publication. AIDStruthers and other vigilantes organized a letter-writing campaign urging Elsevier — the current publisher of Medical Hypotheses — to withdraw this article which had already been posted on the journal’s website as “in press”. At the same time the letter-writing HIV/AIDS campaigners urged the withdrawal of an article by Duesberg et al. that had been accepted by Medical Hypotheses on 11 June, which pointed out that official South African statistics recorded AIDS deaths at about 12,000 annually while an article in JAIDS had alleged 25 times that number; Duesberg et al. noted too that JAIDS had refused to publish their rebuttal of the flawed article.

The HIV/AIDS vigilantes also sent letters to the National Library of Medicine urging that MEDLINE no longer abstract Medical Hypotheses.

Elsevier’s stated reasons why articles in press might nevertheless be withdrawn include “potentially libelous” content and “potential threat to global public health”. I invite anyone and everyone to judge for themselves whether either of those potentialities exists in those articles, and moreover to ponder what is common to those articles other than questioning HIV/AIDS theory on the basis of substantive evidence; and what about the articles warrants withdrawal after acceptance, by comparison to the 200+ articles still posted at the Medical Hypotheses website as “in press”.

Professor Ruggiero has now been able to point out that the Italian Ministry of Health has actually found helpful the work that he and his students have published, since they have revised some of their policies accordingly. Moreover, the Italian Public Health Service has officially recognized the work by making dissertations available from its website.

**********************

From Professor Ruggiero:

“The theses of Drs. Simone Scarpelli, Matteo Prayer Galletti, and Elda Muca, previously discussed and approved by the University of Firenze, Italy, received official recognition by the Italian Public Health Service and they are now available at the Center for Study and Research on Drug Abuse and AIDS, a Department of the Public Health Service.
It is worth noting that the thesis of Dr. Matteo P. Galletti (now available at request at http://www.cesda.net, in Italian with an English abstract) was the starting point of the article in Medical Hypotheses (M. Ruggiero, M. P. Galletti, S. Pacini, T. Punzi, G. Morucci, M. Gulisano, “Aids denialism at the ministry of health” (doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.06.002), as stated in the article.
We are grateful to the Region of Tuscany and the Department of drug abuse of the Public Health Service for providing official recognition to the results.”

Screen shots of the relevant Web pages are attached below: click them (or double-click, depends on browser) for a full-size image. There is at the end a downloadable pdf of this blog post.

PHS10SeptPHS14SeptGallettiURLGallettiText

PHS1PHS2PHS3

Here is a PDF of this blog post.

Public Health Service of Italy accepts work of Ruggiero et al.

On 12 July 2009, this blog published a press release reporting the acceptance (on 3 June) by the journal Medical Hypotheses of an article by Professor Ruggiero and co-workers at the University of Florence pointing out that official policies of the Italian Ministry of Health implied a lack of necessary connection between HIV and AIDS [“Official Italian data: no causal connection between HIV and AIDS”, 12 July 2009].

Consternation ensued among HIV/AIDS vigilantes that so well established, indeed distinguished a research group had produced such a publication. AIDStruthers and other vigilantes organized a letter-writing campaign urging Elsevier — the current publisher of Medical Hypotheses — to withdraw this article which had already been posted on the journal’s website as “in press”. At the same time the letter-writing HIV/AIDS campaigners urged the withdrawal of an article that had been accepted by Medical Hypotheses on 11 June, by Duesberg et al., which pointed out that official South African statistics recorded AIDS deaths at about 12,000 annually while an article in JAIDS had alleged 25 times that number; Duesberg et al. noted too that JAIDS had refused to publish their rebuttal of the flawed article.

The HIV/AIDS vigilantes also sent letters to the National Library of Medicine urging that MEDLINE no longer abstract Medical Hypotheses.

Elsevier’s stated reasons why articles in press might nevertheless be withdrawn include “potentially libelous” content and “potential threat to global public health”. Professor Ruggiero has now been able to point out that the Italian Ministry of Health has actually found helpful the work that he and his students have published, since they have revised some of their policies accordingly. Moreover, the Italian Public Health Service has officially recognized the work by making dissertations available from its website.

From Professor Ruggiero:

“The theses of Drs. Simone Scarpelli, Matteo Prayer Galletti, and Elda Muca, previously discussed and approved by the University of Firenze, Italy, received official recognition by the Italian Public Health Service and they are now available at the Center for Study and Research on Drug Abuse and AIDS (www.cesda.net), a Department of the Public Health Service.

It is worth noting that the thesis of Dr. Matteo P. Galletti (now available at request at http://www.cesda.net, in Italian with an English abstract) was the starting point of the article in Medical Hypotheses (M. Ruggiero, M. P. Galletti, S. Pacini, T. Punzi, G. Morucci, M. Gulisano, “Aids denialism at the ministry of health” (doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2009.06.002), as stated in the article.

We are grateful to the Region of Tuscany and the Department of drug abuse of the Public Health Service for providing official recognition to the results.”

Screen shots of the relevant Web pages are attached below. The difficulty of sizing these for the blog while retaining clarity made it desirable to extract screen shots of the relevant items. Reproductions of the full web pages follow, and finally there is a downloadable pdf of this blog post in which the full web pages are in legible form.


Here is a PDF of this blog post.

***************************************************************************

Categories:  HIV does not cause AIDS,  HIV skepticism,  Legal aspects

Tags Italian Public Health Service, Marco Ruggiero, University of Florence, Italian Ministry of Health, Medical Hypotheses, Elsevier, Elsevier withdraws already accepted articles, HIV/AIDS vigilantes pressure Elsevier, HIV/AIDS vigilantes pressure National Library of Medicine, AID deaths in South Africa, Simone Scarpelli, Matteo Prayer Galletti, Elda Muca, S. Pacini, T. Punzi, G. Morucci, M. Gulisano, Joshua M. Nicholson, David Rasnick, Christian Fiala

Posted in HIV does not cause AIDS, HIV skepticism, Legal aspects | Tagged: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 9 Comments »

NATURE leads — in censorship and illogic

Posted by Henry Bauer on 2008/12/15

NATURE honored World AIDS Day with an editorial, “The cost of silence?” [4 December, 456: 545], that’s classically AIDStruthian. It cites the Chigwere et al. claim of lives lost in South Africa as a result of failure to provide antiretroviral drugs [for deconstruction of that claim, see “Poison in South Africa”, 26 October 2008]. The AIDStruthiness of the piece is underscored by its citation of a Nattrass article that managed to reach the same conclusion as Chigwerde et al.

NATURE’s illogic is stunningly exemplified by the editorial’s concluding paragraph:
“In retrospect, the [Mbeki advisory] panel, constituted as it was, should never have been supported. Yet several of the country’s key scientific institutions explicitly endorsed its establishment, and also desisted from criticizing Mbeki. Along with his cabinet, they bear some culpability for the consequences that have now been documented. There is a moral to this tragic tale that may prove relevant in other contexts. In a young democracy with a historically hierarchical culture, and with attitudes often hardened by a colonial past, scientific institutions need not only to guard their independence fiercely but also to make their reasoned voices heard above the fray of political sycophancy” [emphasis added].

The editorial writer evidently thinks that scientific institutions are fiercely guarding their independence only when they take a stand congenial to the editorial writer, in other words, when they parrot the mainstream consensus. I prescribe a short course in history of science, with special emphasis on the role of unorthodox views in the progress of science [start perhaps with references 24, 25, 35 in “Science Studies 101: Why is HIV/AIDS 'science' so unreliable?”, 18 July 2008].  As history of science knows, the mainstream consensus always opposes the most striking progress.

(Note too that “young democracy with a historically hierarchical culture” is not only condescending, it implies that there’s no need, in OUR aged democracies which have no hierarchical structure, to worry about political sycophancy. Course work in social and political science as well as in science studies is evidently needed quite badly by NATURE’s editorial staff.)

NATURE’s exclusion of claims that promise striking progress was summed up nicely by Nobelist Paul Lauterbur: “You could write the entire history of science in the last 50 years in terms of papers rejected by Science or Nature” [cited by Michael Goodspeed, “Science and the Coming Dark Age”, rense.com, accessed  10 October 2004].

Gordon Stewart has experienced NATURE’s censorship perhaps as much as anyone (see “A paradigm under pressure: HIV-AIDS model owes popularity to wide-spread censorship”, Index on Censorship (UK) 3; http://www.virusmyth. net/aids/data/gsparadigm.htm), yet he has continued to offer the magazine the opportunity to live up to scientific ideals of open discussion. Most recently, he sent a calm and measured response to the “Cost of silence” editorial, and was rewarded by an instant rejection by return of e-mail:

“Dear  Dr Stewart
Thank you for your Correspondence submission, which we regret we are unable to publish.  Pressure on our limited space is severe, so we can offer to publish only a very few of the many submissions we receive.
Naturally, I am sorry to convey a negative response in this instance.
Thank you again for writing to us.

Yours sincerely

Jayne Henderson, Correspondence, Nature”.

Stewart then enlisted Christian Fiala, Etienne de Harven and me and re-submitted under our joint signatures. The rejection came again by instant return e-mail, though this time signed (though not necessarily in person, of course) by the chief executive editorial honcho:

“Dear Dr Stewart
Thank you for your letter. We are not prepared to reconsider your Correspondence submission. No doubt you will be able to publish your and your colleagues’ views on AIDS transmission in parts of Africa and elsewhere in the world in some other publication after peer-review, but Nature Correspondence is not an appropriate place for such reports.

Yours sincerely, Maxine Clarke, NATURE”

Here’s the text of the rejected letter:

(00 44) 0131 552 2648                        29/8 Inverleith Place,
Gs2648@aol.com                        Edinburgh  EH3 5QD, UK.

7th December, 2008.
resubmission, 15th December.

To: Dr Philip Campbell,  Editor-in-Chief, NATURE,
By email to nature@nature.com            Confirmatory copy in postal mail.

Response to THE COST OF SILENCE?  Editorial.  NATURE 2008; 456; 545.

The allegations and recent updates in your Editorial about avoidable deaths due to HIV/AIDS in South Africa certainly require attention, but need also to be corrected. In AIDS, of all diseases, silence is surely the wrong word. But noise, in local and increasingly in international medical journals and lay Media, was loud, resonant and viciously ad hominem in the year 2000 when ex-President Mbeki welcomed about fifty international experts to join what NATURE now refers to as “The infamous Presidential advisory panel”. I was invited in 1999 to join that panel in company with Professors Luc Montagnier, Peter Duesberg, Zena Stein, Etienne de Harven, scientists from the US NIH, physicians from the US CDC, the team from Perth (Australia) and experts from severely-affected locations in Africa, South America and elsewhere, and from main centres in South Africa.  Dr Robert Gallo of the US NCI was invited to join but did not do so.

The infamous panel held meetings, at first in Pretoria and then in Johannesburg, chaired by a Canadian Judge, and taped. Observers from local and international Media were admitted to some meetings. Additional American experts, nominated by President Clinton, attended sessions and interviewed panelists individually and confidentially. The Minister of Health and the Chief Medical Adviser to the President attended all sessions, were available, with their staffs and other government officials and local academics, for consultation about transcripts and records, and to enable proposals made by members to be implemented, e.g. for ad hoc surveys and validation of tests. We were encouraged to visit clinics, laboratories, hospitals and, notably, old and new settlements at Soweto, Gauteng and MEDUNSA. To-and-fro activities on this basis continued through personal contacts and on the internet through 2006 when they were abruptly terminated by the sudden death of Professor Sam Mhlongo [footnote 1], who had been coordinating them. For this reason and because of fundamental and often sharp differences within the Panel, the outcome was, as Nature says, inconclusive, to which we would add a third word disappointing, because metropolitan facilities and expertise for investigation were impressive especially when in 2001 Dr Makgoba published a detailed report by the SA Medical Research Council. But their data and conclusions were found to be based [footnote 2] on records which were obsolete or incomplete. Do the recent reports to which Nature now refers correct this fault?

From 2000 onward, the noise increased internationally because seroprevalence of HIV and projections of symptomatic AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) were reported by UN AIDS, all major journals and health authorities as being the highest in the world (1-3). This was indubitable in continental comparisons but, within Africa, there were wide differences between the 50/51 countries where the data recorded in Sentinel Surveillance by WHO (2) showed a mean cumulative seroprevalence [footnote 3] of 126/100,000, higher than in any other continent or region. But this mean ranged from 39/100,000 (median 30) in 37, mainly northern countries, to a mean of 313/100,000 (median 268) in 16/50 countries in SSA, probably the highest in the world even with allowance for “Titanic” exaggerations and other errors, some of which were accepted as “Deliberate” by Nature (447;531-2) in their review in 2007 of disclosures (3) by James Chin, former Chief of AIDS for WHO before he retired to be a professor at UC Berkeley, CA. In South Africa, however, the mean was only 30/100,000. At all levels, these figures included doubts about incidence and projections based upon serotests, raised originally by Harvard field workers (4) in Africa and endorsed by Professor Mhlongo in SSA and in a communication to an open meeting on HIV/AIDS in Africa convened by and at the European Parliament in December, 2004.. However, as in other countries, and not only in Africa, validated data on sensitivity, specificity and consistency are still awaited. The massive registrations in tribal, borderline and backward regions are based largely on the infamous Bangui definition devised by WHO (5) for diagnosis of HIV/AIDS in places where there are no facilities for sampling, surveillance and testing, or even for recognizing and purifying dirty water.

High seroprevalence is not necessarily followed by increase in mortality or decline in population. In Uganda, formerly featured as the epicenter of the projected pandemic of HIV/AIDS, there was an unprecedented increase in population due to a slight decrease in mortality accompanied by a stable and higher birth rate over the period reviewed by the Infamous Panel (10).

These differences within Africa and between Africa and everywhere else require clarification as well as correction. When this was done in UK, USA and other developed countries, registration data from 1986 onward showed beyond reasonable doubt that the main determinants of symptomatic AIDS were and are high risk behaviours and preferences in sex, life styles and drugs (6-9), mainly in males, with transfer to female consorts bisexually and perinatally. In some other countries and especially in Africa, this transfer is complicated and extended (1,3,7,8) by abuse of women and girls in deeply unhygienic settings where all the STD’s and many other diseases  (1,3,7-10) besides HIV/AIDS are endemic, often lethal and difficult or impossible to differentiate by the Bangui definition in the field or even in hospital, especially in infants.

Irrespectively of these desiderata, your editorial asserts that President Mbeki and his Minister of Health lost credit and support primarily because they had implied that HIV did not cause AIDS. Neither did Professor Montagnier in a paper (11) written with collaborators in 1990 and on other occasions ( before and since that important year).

REFERENCES

1    UN AIDS. International Registrations of HIV/AIDS. See also AIDS in Africa. EC Meeting, Brussels, Dec 8th, 2004; and Stewart, GT.   AIDS and hepatitis Digest No 83; 2 (PHLS)
2    WHO: Sentinel Surveillance and wkly epidemiological reports. Geneva,1985-date
3    Chin J   The AIDS Pandemic.  Oxford, Radcliffe: 2007. See also Nature 200
4    Kashala O, Marlink H, Ilunga M et al. J Inf Dis. 1994; 169; 296,
5    The Bangui reclassification of AIDS. WHO, Geneva: 1985.
6    Stewart GT. Uncertainties about AIDS and HIV.  Lancet 1989; 335; 1325.
7    Stewart GT Changing the case definition of AIDS.  Lancet 1992: 340; 1414.
8    Bebe Loff   Africans discuss ethics of biomedical research. Lancet 2002; 359; 956.
9    Stewart GT. Uncertainties about AIDS and HIV. Lancet 1989; 336; 1325
10    Uganda Bureau of Statistics 1995 and 2000-2001. Population Census 2002. …………..
11    Lemaitre M, Henin L, Montagnier L, Zerinal A et al. Res Virology 1990; 141; 5-16.
12    AIDS in Africa. The European Parliament, Brussels, December 2004.
13    See also Bauer HH The Origins, Persistence and Failings of HIV/AIDS Theory. Jefferson NC and London. McFarland Publishing: 2007.
14    De Harven E, Roussez JC. Ten Lies about AIDS. Victoria, BC., Canada. Trafford Publishing: 2008.
15    Other references and correspondence are profusely available, on request.

Footnotes:
1    See obituary, BMJ 2007.
2    See Fiala C et al  Lancet 2001; 358; 1381 and correspondence with Department of Error.
3    Rounded to nearest whole number

Authors, with details for Editor:

Gordon Thallon Stewart, M.D., Emeritus Chair of Public Health at the University of Glasgow. Former consultant physician (Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine), NHS-UK., also to New York City, WHO, AMREF.; Emeritus Fellow, Inf Dis Soc of America and member, Editorial Board.

Etienne de Harven, M.D. Emeritus Professor of Pathology, University of Toronto. Formerly electron microscopist, The Rockefeller University, New York City.

Christian Fiala, M.D. Obstetrician-Gynaecologist in Vienna and Uganda.

Henry H Bauer,  Ph.D. Dean Emeritus of Arts & Sciences, Professor Emeritus of Chemistry &
Science Studies, Virginia Polytechnic Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA, USA.

Posted in experts, HIV skepticism, HIV/AIDS numbers, prejudice | Tagged: , , , , , | 3 Comments »

Bibliography to Fiala’s “Lieben wir gefährlich?”

Posted by Henry Bauer on 2008/09/28

In response to a query by commentator Martin, Dr. Christian Fiala sent the bibliography for his book:

LITERATURVERZEICHNIS
1. Definition

1.06 CDC, Pneumocystis pneumonia- Los Angeles, Morbidity and mortality weekly report (MMWR), 1981; 30: 250-2
1.07 CDC, KS and PcP among homosexual men – New York City and California, MMWR, 1981; 30: 305-8
1.08 CDC, Update on Kaposi’s sarcoma and opportunistic infections in previously healthy persons – US, MMWR, 1982; 31: 294,300-1
1.0 Barré-Sinoussi et al; Isolation of a T-lymphocyte retrovirus from a patient at risk for Aids, Science, 1983; 220: 868 71
1.1 Gallo et al, Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and at risk for AIDS, Science, 1984, 224, 500 3
1.3 Centers for Disease Control (CDC), Update on acquired immune deficiency syndrom (Aids) – United States, MMWR, 1982, Vol 31, no 37;  507 14
1.4 CDC, Revision of the case definition of Aids for national reporting – United Stated, MMWR, 1985, Vol 34; 373 5
1.5 CDC, Revision of the CDC surveillance case definition for Aids, MMWR, 1987, Vol 36; 1 15 S
1.6 CDC, 1993 Revised classification system for HIV infection and expanded surveillance case definition for Aids among adolescents and adults, MMWR, 1992, December 18, Vol 41, no RR 17; 1 19
1.7 CDC; Update: Impact of the expanded Aids surveillance case definition for adolescents and adults on case reporting – United Stated, MMWR, 1994, march 11, Vol 43 no 9; 160 70
1.8 Steward; Canging case-definition for AIDS, The Lancet, 1992, Vol 340, Dec 5; 1414
1.9 Ancelle-Park R et al; Impact of 1993 revision of adult/adolescent AIDS surveillance case definition for Europe,Lancet, 1995; 345, 789 90
1.10 CDC; 1994 revised classification system for HIV infection in children less than 13 years of age, MMWR, 1994; 43 (RR 12): 1 10
1.11 Selik-RM et al; Impact of the 1987 revision of the case definition of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United States., J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr, 1990; 3(1): 73 82
1.12 Vella-S et al; Differential survival of patients with AIDS according to the 1987 and 1993 CDC case definitions, JAMA, 1994; Apr 20; 271(15): 1197 9
1.13 Stehr-Green-JK et al; Potential effect of revising the CDC surveillance case definition for AIDS, Lancet, 1988; Mar 5; 1(8584): 520 1
1.14 Smith-E et al; Isager-H, Impact of the 1987 revised AIDS case definition in Denmark: a follow-up study 2 years after its adoption, Scand-J-Infect-Dis, 1992; 24(3): 293 9
1.15 Hoover DR et al; Long-term survival without clinical AIDS after CD4+ cell counts fall below 200 x 106/l, Aids, 1995; Vol 9, no 2: 145 52
1.16 WHO; Workshop on Aids in Central Africa, Bangui22.-25. October 1985, Dokument WHO/CDS/AIDS/85.1, Genf, 1985
1.17 WHO, Global programme on AIDS; Provisional WHO clinical case definition for AIDS, Wkly-Epidemiol-Rec, 1986; March 7; no 10: 72 3
1.18 Cayla Joan et al; L’impact de la nouvelle definition de Sida à Barcelone, V. Int Conf Aids Montreal, 1989; Abstract T.A.O. 3
1.19 Pezzotti P et al; The effect of the 1993 European revision of the Aids case definition in Italy: implications for medelling the HIV epidemic, AIDS, 1997; 11: 95 9
2. Epidemiologie
2.0 Jaffe H.W. et al, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in the United States: The first 1.000 cases, J Infect Dis , 1983; Vol. 148, No 2: 339-45
2.1 Bericht des Aids-Zentrums im Robert Koch-Insitut über aktuelle epidemiologische Daten, Berlin, Quartalsbericht IV/96
2.2 Aids-Zentrum im Bundesgesundheitsamt, Bericht zur eppidemiologischen Situation in der BRD zum 31.12.1995, Berlin
2.3 Infektionsepidemiologische Forschung, Quartalsbericht, Robert Koch-Insitut, Berlin
2.4 Epidemiologisches Bulletin, Robert Koch-Insitut, Berlin
2.5 Todesursachen in Deutschland, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden, 1994
2.6 Meldepflichtige Krankheiten, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden
2.7 Diagnosen der Krankenhäuser, Statistisches Bundesamt Wiesbaden
2.8 Mitteilung des Statistischen Bundesamtes Wiesbaden
2.9 Ergebnisse der ANOMO-Studie 1988 bis 1994, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Bonn
2.10 Österreichische Aidsstatistik, Bericht zum 31.1.1997, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Wien
2.11 Kunz, Virusepidemiologische Information, 1987-97, Wien
2.12 Demographisches Jahrbuch Österreichs, Österr. Statistisches Zentralamt, Wien
2.13 European Centre for the epidemiological monitoring of Aids; HIV/AIDS Surveillance in Europe, Quarterly Report, St. Maurice, France
2.14 WHO, The current global situation of the HIV/Aids Pandemic, 3 January 1995
2.15 Bulletin Epidémiologique hebdomadaire, 10/1996, Ministère du Travail et des Affaires sociales, Paris
2.16 Solidarité santé, Juillet 1994, Ministère du Travail et des Affaires sociales, Paris
2.17 Cohorte Aquitaine: Rapport d’Activité Décembre 1995, Groupe d’Epidémiologie Clinique du SIDA en Aquitaine, Université de Bordeaux II
2.18 7. Österreichischer Aids-Kongress, 20.9.96, Wien
2.19 6. Deutscher Aids-Kongreß, 24.-26.10.96, München
2.20 Tomaso-H et al; Die Übertragung der HIV-Infektion, Wien-Klin-Wochenschr, 1995,107(3), 85 90
2.21 CDC; Update: AIDS – US, 1994, MMWR, 1995; 44, no 4: 64 7
2.22 CDC; First 500.000 Aids cases – US 1995, MMWR, 1995; 44, no 46: 849 53
2.23 UNAIDS and WHO, The HIV/AIDS situation in mid 1996, 1996, Genf
2.24 Chin J and Mann M, The global patterns and prevalence of AIDS and HIV infection, AIDS, 1988; 2, suppl 1: S 247 522
2.25 Dietz K., Seydel J., Back-Projection of German Aids data using information on dates of tests, Stat-med , 1991; 13: 1991 2008
2.26 Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, Aspekte der bundesweiten Aids-Präventionskampagne, Köln, 1996
2.27 Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung, Aids im öffentlichen Bewußtsein der Bundesrepublik, Köln, 1995
2.28 Bericht über das Gesundheitswesen in Österreich im Jahr 1994, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Wien
2.29 Palitzsch et al, Prevalence of hepatitis B and C virus infection in Germany, Universität Regensburg
2.30 Jilg, Gründe für eine generelle Impfung gegen Hepatitis B, Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 1996; 93, Heft 47: B-2435 9
2.31 Szucs et al, Die Kostenstruktur der Hepatitis-B-Infektion, Fortschritte der Medizin, 1997; 4: 47 8
2.32 Dathe O. et al, Ist Anonymes Unverknüpftes Testen auf Anti-HIV an Gebärenden zur Prävalenzbestimmung sinnvoll?, 6. Deutscher Aids-Kongreß, 1996; P 112
2.33 CDC, HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report, US HIV and Aids cases reported through December 1996; 8(no 2)
2.34 Downs A et al, Reconstruction and prediction of the HIV/Aids epidemic among adults in the European Union and in the low prevalence countries of central and eastern Europe, Aids, 1997; 11: 649-62

3. Heterosexuelle Übertragung
3.1 European study group on heterosexual transmission of HIV, Vincenzi et al; Risk factors for male to female transmission of HIV, BMJ, 1989, Feb 18. 298(6671): 411 5
3.2 Padian et al; Male-to-female transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, JAMA, 1987, Aug 14. 258(6): 788 90
3.3 Italian study group on HIV heterosexual transmission, Lazzarin et al; Man-to-woman sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus, Arch-Intern-Med, 1991, Dec; 151(12): 2411 6
3.4 Italian study group on HIV heterosexual transmission, Saracco et-al; Man-to-woman sexual transmission of HIV: longitudinal study of 343 steady partners of infected men, J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr, 1993, May; 6(5): 497 502
3.5 Siddiqui et al; No seroconversions among steady sex partners of methadone-maintained HIV-1-seropositive injecting drug users in New York City, AIDS, 1992, Dec; 6(12): 1529 33
3.6 Potterat et al; Lying to military physicians about risk factors for HIV infection, JAMA, 1987, 258:1727
3.7 Seidlin et al; Heterosexual transmission of HIV in a cohort of couples in New York City, Aids,1993, Vol 7, No 9: 1247 54
3.8 Padian et al; Female to male transmission of human immunoseficiency virus, Jama, 1991, Vol 266, September 25: 1664 7
3.9 European study group on heterosexual transmission of HIV, Vincenzi et al; The New England Journal of Medicine, 1994, Vol 331, No 6: 341 6
3.10 European study group on heterosexual transmission of HIV, Vincenzi et al; Comparison of female to male and male to female transmission of HIV in 563 stable couples, BMJ, 1992, Vol 304, March 28: 809 13
3.11 Italian study group on HIV heterosexual transmission, Nicolosi et al; Risk Factor for woman to man sexual transmission of the human immunideficiency virus, Journal of Aids, 1994, Vol 7 No 3: 296 300
3.12 Ronald-PJ et al; Heterosexual transmission of HIV in injecting drug users, BMJ, 1993, Nov 6; 307(6913):1184 5
3.13 Al-Nozha et al; Female to Male: An Inefficient Mode of Transmission Of HIV, J Acq Imm Def Syndr, 1990, Vol 3 no 2: 193
3.14 CDC; Heterosexually acquired AIDS-United States, 1993. MMWR, 1994; Mar 11; 43(9): 155 60
3.16 Guinan-ME; HIV heterosexual transmission and women, JAMA, 1992; Jul 22-29; 268(4): 520 1
3.17 Italian Study Group on HIV Heterosexual transmission, Musicco-M et al; Antiretroviral treatment of men infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reduces the incidence of heterosexual transmission, Arch Intern Med; 1994; Vol 154, Sept 12: 1971 6
3.18 Daly-CC et al; Contraceptive methods and the transmission of HIV: implications for family planning, Genitourin-Med. 1994; Apr; 70(2): 110 7
3.19 Fischl; Evaluation of heterosexual partners. children and household contacts of adults with Aids, Jama, 1987; Feb 6, vol 257. no 5: 640 4
3.20 Smiley ML. et al; Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus to sexual partners of hemophiliacs, Am J Hematol, 1988; May 28(1): 27 32
3.21 Ragni M.V; HIV heterosexual transmission in hemophilia couples: lack of relation to T4 number, clinical diagnosis or duration of HIV exposure, J-acquir-immune-defi, 1989; Vol 2. no 6: 557 63
3.22 Gruppo Italiano Coagulopatie Congenite, Ghirardini-A et al; Testing practices and spread of HIV among sexual partners of HIV-positive haemophiliacs in Italy, AIDS. 1993; Apr; 7(4): 573 7
3.23 Petermann, Risk of human immunodeficiency virus tranmission from heterosexual adults with transfusion-associates infections, Jama, 1988; Jan 1, vol 259, no 1: 55 8
3.24 European Working Group on HIV Infection in Female Prostitutes; HIV infection in European female sex workers: epidemiological link with use of petroleum-based lubricants, AIDS, 1993; Mar; 7(3): 4.1 8
3.25 Potterat, Does Syphilis facilitate sexual acquisition of HIV?, Jama, 1987; July 24. vol 258. no 4: 473 4
3.26 Theill-O et al; Jugendliche und Aids: Sexualverhalten, Wissen und Einstellungen. Ergebnisse einer Befragung von Schülern in einer westdeutschen Großstadt, Monatsschr-Kinderheilkd,1993; 141(5): 421 6
3.27 O’Brien-TR et al; Heterosexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from transfusion recipients to their sex partners, J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr,1994, Jul; 7(7):705 10
3.33 SEROCO Study Group, Carre-N et al; Effect of age and exposure group on the onset of AIDS in heterosexual and homosexual HIV-infected patients, AIDS, 1994; Jun; 8(6): 797 802
3.34 Brody-S; Lack of evidence for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through vaginal intercourse, Arch-Sex-Behav, 1995; Aug; 24(4): 383 93
3.35 McDonald-AM et al; Assessment of self-report in HIV surveillance: a pilot study, Aust-J-Public-Health, 1994; Dec; 18(4): 429 32
3.36 Brody-S; Continued Lack of evidence for transmission of human immunodeficiency virus through vaginal intercourse, Arch-Sex-Behav, 1996; 25(3): 329 37
3.37 Bundeszentrale für gesundheitliche Aufklärung; Sexualtität und Kontrazeption aus der Sicht der Jugendlichen und ihrer Eltern – eine Wiederholungsbefragung, Köln, 1996
3.38 Nöstlinger, Wimmer-Puchinger; Geschützte Liebe- Jugendsexualität und Aids, 1994, Verlag Jugend und Volk, Wien
3.39 Nicolosi et al; The efficiency of male-to-female and female-to-male sexual transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus: a study of 730 stable couples, Epidemiology, 1994; Nov; 5(6): 570 5
3.40 Kröhn W. und Sydow-Kröhn A.; Der Latex-Handgriff – Eine Untersuchung zur Kondomakzeptanz bei Jugendlichen, Aktion Jugendschutz, Kiel, 1991
4. Afrika
4.1 Piot et al; Le Sida en Afrique, Manuel du praticien, WHO, 1993
4.2 Nzilambi et al; The prevalence of infection with HIV over a 10-year period in rural Zaire, The New England Journal of Midicine, 1988, Vol 318, No 5: 276 9
4.3 Binda-ki-Muaka-P et al; Malaria, anaemia, and HIV-1 transmission in central Africa, Lancet,1995, Nov 11; 346(8985):1294 5
4.4 Mulder; Two year HIV-1 associated mortality in a Ugandan rural population, Lancet, 1994, 343: 1021 3
4.5 Dondero; Excess deaths in Africa from HIV confirmed and quantified, Lancet, 1994, 343:  989
4.6 Nahmias AJ et al; Evidence for Human infection with an HTLV III/LAV-like Virus in Central Africa 1959. Lancet. 1986; May 31: 1279 80
4.8 Konotey-Ahulu; Aids in Africa: misinformation and disinformation, Lancet, 1987, July 25: 206 7
4.9 Kashala O. et al; Infection with HIV-1 and HTLV among leprosy patients and contacts: Correlation between HIV-1 cross-ractivity and antibodies to lipoarabinomannan, J Infect Dis , 1994; 169: 296 304
4.10 Lucas BS et al; Infection with HIV-1 and HTLV among leprosy patients in Zaire, J Infect Dis, 1995; 171: 502 3
4.11 Djomand-G et al; Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in a west African population, AIDS, 1994; Jun; 8(6): 843 7
4.12 Biggar RJ; The Aids Problem in Africa, Lancet, 1986; Jan 11: 79 83
4.13 Papadopulos-Eleopulos et al; Aids in Africa: Distinguishing fact and fiction, World J Microbiology & Biotechnology, 1995; 11: 135 43
4.14 Lindan et al; Predictors of Mortality among HIV-infected Women in Kigali, Rwanda, Ann Int Medicine, 1992; 116: 320 8
4.15 Colebunders et al; Evaluation of a clinical case definition of Aids in Africa, Lancet, 1987; Feb. 28: 492 4
4.16 Pallangyo et al; Clinical case definition of Aids in African adults, Lancet, 1987; Oct 24: 972
4.17 Widy-Wirsky, Evaluation of the WHO clinical case definition for Aids in Uganda, Jama, 1988; 260: 3286 9
4.18 Chin J; Public health surveillance of Aids and HIV infections, Bulletin of the WHO, 1990; 68(5): 529 36
4.19 Laga-M et al; Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study, AIDS., 1993; Jan; 7(1): 95 101
4.20 Wyatt; Le prix des injections inutiles dans les pays en développement, La Revue Presscrire, 1995; Tomme 15, No 152: 474 5
4.21 Wyatt; Unnecessary injections in developing countries the risk and costs, Int J of Risk & Safety in Medicine, 1993; 4: 167 76
4.22 Wyatt et al; Unnecessary injections and paralytic poliomyelitis in India, Trans Royal Soc Trop Med Hyg, 1992; 86: 546 9
4.23 Gopal Rao; Injections in the Indian subcontinent, BMJ, 1987; 295: 1281
4.24 Leroy V et al; Seroincidence of HIV-1 infection in African women of reproductive age: a prospective cohort study in Kigali, Rwanda, 1988-1992, Aids, 1994; 8: 983 6
4.25 Lepage et al; Perinatal transmission of HIV-1: lack of impact of maternal HIV infection on characteristics of livebirths and on neonatal mortality in Kigali, Ruanda, Aids, 1991; 5: 295 300
4.26 De Cock K. et al; Expanion of surveillance case definition for AIDS in resource-poor countries, Lancet, 1993; 342: 437 8
4.27 De Cock et al; Aids surveillance in Africa: a reappraisal of case definitions, BMJ, 1991; 303: 1185 8
4.28 Weniger et al; A simplified surveillance case definition of AIDS derived from empirical clinical data, Journal Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes , 1992; 5: 1212 23
4.29 Gilks; What use is a clinical case definition for AIDS in Africa?, BMJ, 1991; 303: 1189 90
4.30 Plummer-FA et-al; Cofactors in male-female sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1, J-Infect-Dis, 1991; 163:233 9
4.31 Roddy RE., Feldblum PJ; Analytical Mehodology in a Cohort Study of Cofactors for Sexual Transmission of HIV, J Infect Dis , 1991; 164: 1236 7
4.32 Biggar et al; Elisa HTLV retrovirus antbody reactivity associated with malaria and immune complexes in healthy Africans, Lancet, 1985, II: 520 3
4.33 Irova; Aids-resembling disease in a non-HIV-infected african born to an HIV-positive mother, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, 1995; 12: 495 8
4.34 Strecker-W et al; Epidemiology and clinical manifestation of HIV infection in northern Zaire, Eur-J-Epidemiol, 1994; Feb; 10(1): 95 8
4.35 Van-de-Perre P; The epidemiology of HIV infection and AIDS in Africa, Trends-Microbiol, 1995; Jun; 3(6): 217 22
4.36 WHO, Water Supply and Sanitation Sextor Monitoring Report 1996, Genf, WHO/EOS/96.15
4.37 Terezinha T. et al, Serologic Validation of HIV-Infection in a Tropical Area, Journal Of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 1993; 6: 319-22

5. Thailand
5.1 Aids: the third wave (Editorial), Lancet, 1994; Jan 22: 1868
5.2 Mastro-TD et al; Probability of female-to-male transmission of HIV-1 in Thailand, Lancet, 1994; Jan 22; 343(8891): 204 7
5.3 Sittitrai-W et al; Levels of HIV risk behaviour and AIDS knowledge in Thai men having sex with men, AIDS-Care, 1993; 5(3): 261 71
5.4 Nelson-KE; et al; Changes in sexual behavior and a decline in HIV infection among young men in Thailand, N-Engl-J-Med, 1996, Aug 1; 335(5): 297 303
5.5 Cohen-J; The epidemic in Thailand [news], Science,1994, Dec 9; 266(5191):1647
5.6 Mundee-Y et al; Infectious disease markers in blood donors in northern Thailand, Transfusion, 1995, Mar;  35(3): 264 7
5.7 Kunanusont-C et al; HIV-1 subtypes and male-to-female transmission in Thailand, Lancet,1995, Apr 29; 345(8957): 1078 83
5.8 Yu-XF; Wang-Z et al; Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from patients with AIDS in northern Thailand, J-Virol,1995; 69(8): 4649 55
5.9 Sittitrai-W et al; A survey of Thai sexual behaviour and risk of HIV infection, Int-J-STD-AIDS, 1994, Sep-Oct; 5(5): 377 8
5.10 Kalish-ML et al; Early HIV type 1 strains in Thailand were not responsible for the current epidemic., AIDS-Res-Hum-Retroviruses, 1994, Nov; 10(11): 1573 5
5.11 Beyrer-C et al; Same-sex behavior, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV risks among young northern Thai men,  AIDS, 1995, Feb; 9(2): 171 6
5.12 Kunawararak-P; The epidemiology of HIV and syphilis among male commercial sex workers in northern Thailand, AIDS,1995,May; 9(5): 517 21
5.13 Wasi-C et al; Determination of HIV-1 subtypes in injecting drug users in Bangkok, Thailand, AIDS, 1995, Aug; 9(8): 843 9
5.14 Mason-CJ; Declining prevalence of HIV-1 infection in young Thai men,  AIDS, 1995, Sep; 9(9):1061 5
5.15 Weniger-BG; Brown-T; The march of AIDS through Asia, N-Engl-J-Med, 1996; Aug 1; 335(5): 343 5
5.16 Müller O; Aids in Thailand – Stand der Epidemie in einem asiatischen Land mit hoher Inzidenz der HIV-Infektion, Aids–Forschung, 1993; Nov, (11): 583 92
5.17 Rojanapithayakorn W; Effective Aids Control in Thailand, J Thai Med Soc STD , 1986; Vol 3, No 1: 30 1
5.18 Wangroongsarb Y. et al; Prevalence of HTLV-III/LAV Antibody in Selected Populations in Thailand, J Thai Med Soc STD, 1986; vol 3, No 1: 11
5.19 Kleiber; Aids, Sex und Tourismus: Ergebnisse einer Befragung deutscher Urlauber und Sextouristen, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Bonn, 1995
5.20 Nopkesorn et al; HIV Prevalence and Sexual Behaviors among Thai Men Aged 21 in Northern Thailand, Thai Red Cross Society, 1991, Research Report No 3
5.21 Des Jarlais et al; Aids Risk Reduction and Reduced HIV Seroconversion among Injection Drug Useres in Bangkok, Am-j-public-health , 1994; Vol 84, No 3: 452 5
5.22 Soto-Ramirez-LE et al; HIV-1 Langerhans’ cell tropism associated with heterosexual transmission of HIV, Science, 1996; Mar 1; 271(5253): 1291 3
5.23 Cohen; Differences in HIV Strains May Underlie Disease Patterns, Science , 1995; 270: 30 1
5.24 Gräning B.; Prostitutionstourismus nach Thailand, Überseemuseum Bremen, 1988
6. HIV-negative Aidskranke
6.1 WHO; Global Programme on Aids, Report of a scientific meeting on unexplained severe immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection, 1992, Geneva, GPA/RES/93.3
6.2 Fernandez-Cruz et al; Idiopathic CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia in an asymptomatic HIV-seronegative woman after exposure to HIV, N Engl J Med , 1996; 334, no 18: 1202 3
6.3 Global Programme on Aids; Unexplained severe immunisuppression without evidence of HIV infection, Weekly Epid Record, 1992; No 42, 16 October: 309 11
6.4 Duncan-RA et al; Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia–four patients with opportunistic infections and no evidence of HIV infection, N-Engl-J-Med, 1993, Feb 11; 328(6): 393 8
6.5 Spira JT et al; Idiopathic CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia – an analysis of five patients with enexplained opportunistic infections, N Engl J Med , 1993; Feb 11: 386 92
6.6 Ho-DD et al; Idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia–immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection, N-Engl-J-Med, 1993, Feb 11; 328(6): 380 5
6.7 Smith KD et al; Unexplained opportunistic infections and CD4+ T-Lymphocytopenia without HIV infection – An Investigation of Cases in the US, N Engl J Med, 1993; Febr 11, No 6: 373 9
6.8 CDC; Unexplained CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in persons without evident HIV infection–United States, MMWR-Morb-Mortal-Wkly-Rep, 1992, Jul 31; 41(30): 541 5
6.9 CDC; Update: CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in persons without evident HIV infection–United States, MMWR-Morb-Mortal-Wkly-Rep, 1992, Aug 7; 41(31): 578 9
6.10 CDC, Unexplained CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion, persons without evident HIV infection., JAMA, 1992, Sep 9; 268(10): 1254 5
6.11 CDC; Update: CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia in persons without evident HIV infection–United States., JAMA, 1992, Sep 9; 268(10): 1252
6.12 Castro-A et al; Kaposi’s sarcoma and disseminated tuberculosis in HIV-negative individual, Lancet, 1992, Apr 4; 339(8797): 868
6.13 Daus et al; Reduced CD4+ count, infections and immune thrombocytopenia without HIV infection, Lancet, 1989, 2: 559 60
6.14 Moore-JP; Ho-DD; HIV-negative AIDS [news], Lancet,1992, Aug 22; 340(8817): 475
6.15 Laurence-J et al; Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, Lancet,1992, Aug 1; 340(8814): 273 4
6.16 Kaczmarski-RS et al; CD4+ lymphocytopenia due to common variable immunodeficiency mimicking AIDS, J-Clin-Pathol, 1994, Apr; 47(4): 364 6
6.17 Burg-S et al; Idiopathische CD4-Lymphozytopenie mit letaler Salmonella-typhimurium-Sepsis, Dtsch-Med-Wochenschr, 1994, Jul 8; 119(27): 956 8
6.18 McNulty-A et al; Acquired immunodeficiency without evidence of HIV infection: national retrospective survey , BMJ, 1994, Mar 26; 308(6932): 825 6
6.19 Schinazi-RF, Del-Bene-VE; Non-HIV-1 CD4+ lymphocyte depletion in a patient with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome of unknown etiology , AIDS,1993,Feb; 7(2): 284 5
6.25 Mientjes-GH et al; Frequent injecting impairs lymphocyte reactivity in HIV-positive and HIV-negative drug users, AIDS, 1991, Jan; 5(1): 35 41
6.26 Friedman-Kien-AE et al; Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV-negative homosexual men, Lancet; 1990, Jan 20:168 9
7. Sonstiges
7.1 Jäger; Aids und HIV-Infektionen: Diagnostik, Klinik, Behandlung, 1988 mit halbjährlicher Aktualisierung, Landsberg
7.2 WHO; Programme mondial de lutte contre le Sida, Bilan 1994
7.4 WHO; Aids, Images of the epidemic, 1994
7.5 Österreichische Ärztezeitung, Wien, 1989-1994
7.6 Bundesministerium für Gesundheit und Bundesministerium für Unterricht, Materialien zum Thema Aids, 1993, Heft 4
7.7 Spectrum STD & Aids, Wien
7.9 WHO; Le Point, Le Bulletin du Programme mondial de Lutte contre le Sida de l’OMS, Genf
7.10 Der Spiegel
7.11 Gellert et al; Disclosure of Aids in Celebrities, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1992, 327, 19; 1389
7.12 Austria Presse Agentur
7.13 Médecine Tropicale, M.Gentilini, Flammarion Paris, 1993
7.14 Schrott; Die Chronik der Medizin, Chronik Verlag Dortmund, 1993
7.15 Chang; Identification of herpes virus-like DNA sequences in Aids-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma, Science, 1994, 266: 1865 9
7.16 Duden, Das große Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache, 1993
7.17 Elswood-BF, Stricker-RB; Polio vaccines and the origin of AIDS, Med-Hypotheses, 1994, Jun; 42(6): 347 54
7.18 Levy-JA; Long-term survivors of HIV infection, Hosp-Pract-Off-Ed, 1994;  Oct 15; 29(10): 41 52
7.19 Baltimore; Lessons from people with nonprogressive HIV infection, N Engl J Med , 1995; vol 332, no 4: 259 60
7.20 Pantaleo; Studies in subjects with long-term nonprogressive HIV infection, N Engl J Med , 1995; vol 332 no 4: 209 15
7.21 Bucquet; Cohorte francaise multicentrique d’adultes infectes par le VIH, Description et evolution apres 4 ans de suivi, Presse-med , 1994; 23, no 27: 1247 51
7.22 Rutherford et al; Course of HIV-1 infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study, BMJ, 1990; 301: 1183 7
7.23 Groupe international de travail sur la transmission mère-enfant du VIH, Estimation du taux de transmission du VIH de la mère à l’enfant, Cahiers Santé, 1994; 4: 73 86
7.24 Shafer R. and Edlin B; Tuberculosis in Patients infected with HIV: Perspective on the Past Decade, Clinical Infectious Diseases, 1996; 22: 683 704
7.25 Artenstein-AW et al; Multiple introductions of HIV-1 subtype E into the western hemisphere,  Lancet, 1995; Nov 4; 346(8984): 1197 8
7.26 Robert Koch Institut, Auch HIV Subtyp E wird nicht durch Küsse ubertragen, Z-Ärztl-Fortbild-Jena, 1996; Feb; 90(1): 49
7.27 Artenstein-AW; Transmission of HIV-1 subtype E in the United States, JAMA, 1996; Jul 10, 276(2): 99 100
7.28 Beral et al; Kaposi’s sarcoma among persons with AIDS: a sexually transmitted infection?, Lancet, 1990; 335: 123 8
7.29 Cohen; Is a New Virus the Cause of KS?, Science, 1994; 266: 1803 4
7.30 Burke; Measurement of the false positive rate in a screening program for human immunodeficiency virus infections, NEJM,1988, 319: 961 4
7.31 Dock-NL et al; Human immunodeficiency virus infection and indeterminate western blot patterns. Prospective studies in a low prevalence population, Arch-Intern-Med, 1991; Mar; 151(3): 525 30
7.32 Farzadegan H et al; Loss of HIV-1 antibodies with evidence of viral infection in asymptomatic homosexual men – A report from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, Ann Int Medicine, 1988; vol 108, no 6: 785 90
7.33 Rodman-TC et al; Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Tat-reactive antibodies present in normal HIV-negative sera and depleted in HIV-positive sera. Identification of the epitope, J-Exp-Med, 1992; May 1; 175(5): 1247 53
7.34 Bryson Y. et al; Clearance of HIV infection in a perinatally infected infant, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1995, March 30; 833 8
7.35 Roques P. et al; Clearance of HIV infection in 12 perinatally infected children: clinical, virological and immunological data, AIDS, 1995, Vol 9, No 12: F 19 26
7.36 Newell M-L. et al; Detection of virus in vertically exposed HIV-antibody-negative children, The Lancet, 1996, January 27, Vol 347: 213 5
7.37 McIntosh K. and Burchett S; Clearance of HIV- lessons from newborns, The New England Journal of Medicine, 1995, March 30, Vol 332, No 13: 883 4
7.38 Nielsen-C et al; Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR, J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr, 1991, 4(11):1107 11
7.39 Bakshi-SS et al; Repeatedly positive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA polymerase chain reaction in human immunodeficiency virus-exposed seroreverting infants, Pediatr-Infect-Dis-J, 1995; Aug; 14(8): 658 62
7.40 Moore JD et al, HTLV-III Seropositivity in 1971-72 parenteral drug abusers – a case of false positives or evidence of viral exposure?, N Engl J Med , 1986; 314: 1387-8
Lange-WR et al; Followup study of possible HIV seropositivity among abusers of parenteral drugs in 1971-72, Public-Health-Rep, 1991; Jul-Aug; 106(4): 451 5
7.41 Palumbo-P et al; PCR analysis of HIV-seronegative, heterosexual partners of HIV-infected individuals., J-Acquir-Immune-Defic-Syndr-Hum-Retrovirol, 1995; Dec 1; 10(4): 436 40
7.42 Ascher DP; Determination of the etiology of seroreversals in HIV testing by antibody fingerprinting, Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 1993; 6: 241 4
7.43 Celum C et al; Indeterminate HIV-1 Western Blots: Seroconversion Risk, Specificity of Supplemental Tests, an an Algorithm for Evaluation, J Infect Dis , 1991; 164: 656 64
7.44 Serraino-D et al; HIV transmission and Kaposi’s sarcoma among European women, AIDS, 1995; Aug; 9(8): 971 3
7.45 Albrecht-H et al; Kaposi’s sarcoma in HIV infected women in Germany: more evidence for sexual transmission. A report of 10 cases and review of the literature, Genitourin Med, 1994; 70: 394 8
7.46 Caldwell-JC; Caldwell-P; The African AIDS epidemic, Sci-Am, 1996; Mar; 274(3): 40 46
7.47 Celum C. et al; Risk Factors for Repeatedly reaktive HIV-1 EIA and indeterminate Western Blots, 1994,  Arch Intern Med; Vol 154, May 23: 1129 37
7.48 Isotretinoin: Verfälschung von HIV-1-Antkörpertest?, Deutsche Apotheker Zeitung, 1994; 15: 62
7.49 Ayisi NK and Aidoo M; HIV-1 and HIV-2 indeterminate Western Blot patterns, West African J Med, 1994; Vol 13, No 3: 164 7
7.50 Mac Kenzie WR. et al; Multiple false-positive serologic tests for HIV, HTLV-1 and Hepatitis C following influenza vaccination, JAMA, 1992; 268, no 8: 1015 7
7.51 Louria DB. et al; An unusual case of false-positive serology for the HIV: report from the hterosexual HIV transmission study, Clinical Infectious Diseases , 1992; 15: 707 9
7.52 Lee DA. et al; HIV false positive after hepatitis B vaccination, Lancet , 1992; 339: 1060
7.53 Jindal R; False positive tests for HIV in a woman with Lupus and renal failure, N Engl J Med , 1993; 328, no 17: 1281 2
7.54 Le Monde, Paris: 18 und 20. September 1991; 13 Juli 1994
7.55 Luc Montagnier; Des Virus et des Hommes, 1994, Editions Odile Jacob, Paris (Deutsche Übersetztung: Von Viren und Menschen, Rowohlt, 1997)
7.56 Migali-E et al; HIV-1: absence of infection in subjects with indeterminate western blot, Allergol-Immunopathol-Madr, 1993, Mar-Apr; 21(2): 61 5
7.57 Green G;  Attitudes towards people with HIV: are they as stigmatizing as people with HIV perceive them to be?, Soc-Sci-Med, 1995; vol 41, no 4: 557 69
7.58 Koch M. et al; Blutspender als Sentinelpopulation für sexuell übertragbare Krankheiten – Ergebnisse einer soziodemographischen Untersuchung und Befragung zum Sexualverhalten, Gesundheitswesen, 1993; 55: 504 13
7.59 Verdrager-J; Hypotheses sur l’origine et l’emergence du VIH, Bull-Soc-Pathol-Exot, 1995, 88(1): 54 60
7.60 Laconte und Tahi; “Themenabend: Aids, die Zweifel”, Arte, gesendet am 14.3.96
7.61 Schwartz et al; Risk of HIV transmission by anti-HIV-negative blood components in Germany and Austria, Ann Hematol, 1995, 70: 209 13
7.62 Aids-Bekämpfung in Deutschland, Bundesministerium für Gesundheit, Bonn, 1996
7.63 Die Zeit, Hamburg
7.64 Der Standard, Wien
7.65 Mitteilung der Deutschen Latex Forschung, Düsseldorf
7.66 Corbitt; HIV Infection in Manchester, 1959, 1990; 336: 51
7.67 Froland et al; HIV-1 infection in Norwegian family before 1970, Lancet, 1988; June 11 (I): 1344 5
7.68 McClure, Origin of HIV, BMJ, 1989; vol 298, 13 May: 1267-8
7.69 Nelson JA et al, HIV detected in bowel epithelium from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, Lancet, 1988; Febr. 6: 259-62

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A doctor’s summary of the AIDS deceptions

Posted by Henry Bauer on 2008/09/26

Christian Fiala, MD, PhD, is an Austrian specialist in obstetrics and gynaecology who has worked on AIDS in Uganda and Thailand. He has published a fine concise piece in English in a Dutch newspaper. Here are just a few highlights:
(The above link omits Fiala’s references, which are inserted below)

“Many people realised long ago that HIV/AIDS is not a threat to the heterosexual population in Europe or North America. In contrast to the numerous campaigns during the last two decades, intended to make us believe that ‘everyone is at risk’. . .

instead of the announced deadly epidemic of historic proportions [in Uganda] we find an explosive annual population growth rate of 3.4 percent, which means the country is doubling its population in 21 years. . . .

the basic assumption in the HIV/AIDS paradigm — that a positive HIV test leads to AIDS and certain premature death — is wrong, as proven by the example of Uganda. . . . “

Fiala takes special note of the stunning willingness of HIV/AIDS researchers to react vehemently against any dispassionate and factual writings about HIV/AIDS without revealing their own conflicts of interest:
“What kind of quality of scientific judgement can we expect from experts who defend a widely-held belief that guarantees their income and who are unable to see an obvious conflict of interest?”

“Now that the obvious reality has finally been admitted, we can be relieved that the AIDS epidemic is not the killer we were made believe. But how can we prevent a similar deception in the future? One possible strategy is to avoid just believing what scientists tell us, and instead follow Albert Einstein’s advice: ‘The important thing is not to stop questioning’.”

No doubt the HIV/AIDS groupies and defenders of the faith included Fiala long ago among the “denialists”. But Fiala came to his views because of his experience as a medical student and later doctor, as recounted in his book, “Lieben wir gefährlich? Ein Arzt auf der Suche nach den Fakten und  Hintergründen von Aids [sic]” (Do we love dangerously? A doctor in search of the facts and background of AIDS), Deuticke Verlag, Vienna, 1997.

I was finally able to read this book via Interlibrary Loan after several abortive attempts to locate a copy to buy, and plan to write a review some time. The book does not deny that HIV exists or that it can cause AIDS; however, it takes the view that virtually the only way to spread this deadly illness is via anal intercourse or infected needles.

Further reading:
Update on Uganda — An analysis of the predictions and assumptions about the former epicenter of the AIDS epidemic. Implications for other African countries’

‘Aids in Africa: a call for sense, not hysteria’

References:
UNAIDS press release (Geneva, 20 November 2007)
“Global HIV prevalence has levelled off; AIDS is among the leading causes of death globally and remains the primary cause of death in Africa Improvements in surveillance increase understanding of the epidemic, resulting in substantial revisions to estimates”
This press release contains the following statement: “The current estimate of 33.2 million [30.6 – 36.1 million] people living with HIV replaces the 2006 estimate of 39.5 million [34.1 – 47.1 million].”

“U.N. to Cut Estimate of AIDS Epidemic Population with Virus Overstated by Millions”
An article in The Washington Post on 20 November 2007 about the revision of data by UNAIDS. Here is a relevant comment from this report:
“Some researchers, however, contend that persistent overestimates in the widely quoted U.N. reports have long skewed funding decisions and obscured potential lessons about how to slow the spread of HIV. Critics have also said that U.N. officials overstated the extent of the epidemic to help gather political and financial support for combating AIDS.”

The AIDS Pandemic: The Collision of Epidemiology with Political Correctness
A book by Dr. James Chin, the former head epidemiologist at WHO

“Threat of world Aids pandemic among heterosexuals is over, report admits”
An article in The Independent by Jeremy Laurance, Sunday, 8 June 2008

“The writing is on the wall for UNAIDS”
by Roger England in BMJ 2008;336:1072 (10 May),

Lieben wir gefährlich? Ein Arzt auf der Suche nach den Fakten und Hintergründen von Aids (Do we love dangerously?)
Christian Fiala, ein Buch erschienen im Deuticke Verlag Wien, 1997

“Why I Quit HIV”
An article by Rebecca V. Culshaw explaining why she stopped developing mathematical models about the HIV/Aids epidemic

Science Sold Out: Does HIV Really Cause AIDS?
A book by Rebecca V. Culshaw on the problems with the HIV/AIDS theory and the alleged epidemic

The citation from the journal of the German Medical Council is from:
“Kumulative Verwirrung” (Collective confusion), Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 1989, 86, Heft 17, B 853/C 749

Reference for the citation of drinking water: www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/monitoring/jmp2005annexes.pdf

The data on Uganda come from the Uganda Bureau of Statistics:
“The high rate of population growth is mainly due to the persistently high fertility levels (about seven children per woman) that have been observed for the past four decades. The decline in mortality reflected by a decline in Infant and Childhood Mortality Rates as revealed by the Uganda Demographic and Health Surveys (UDHS) of 1995 and 2000-2001, have also contributed to the high population growth rate.” (2002 Population Census, www.ubos.org)

Posted in experts, Funds for HIV/AIDS, HIV tests, HIV transmission, HIV/AIDS numbers, sexual transmission, uncritical media | Tagged: , , , , , , | 3 Comments »

 
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